The readings from this week exhibit several contrasting views on sex and marriage from various early settlers from England, France, and Spain. Europeans failed to realize that Native Peoples did have rules regulating marriage and sexual intercourse, although the rules were sometimes quite different from their own. For the incoming Europeans, the ability for young, unmarried North Carolinian women to engage in sexual activities with the encouragement of their parents was unheard of. For the natives, this was an accepted form of personal expression for the women to use their bodies as they pleased. This pivotal clash of ideals surrounding virginal purity was among many grievances held against the Native Americans in their quest for respect and dignity among the European settlers. Piess,
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In the National Congress of American Indians found that an estimated 40 percent of women who are victims of sex trafficking identify as American Indian, Alaska Native, or First Nations. Phoenix, Arizona — which has a large Native community — has also been identified as a major jurisdiction for trafficking for sexual exploitation by the US Department of Justice. Accordingly to Valaura Imus-Nahsonhoya, a Hopi expert on human trafficking in Indian country, targeting of Native women occurs for several reasons. The Navajo-Hopi Observer reports:. Why seek Natives? Sex traffickers prey upon young girls and women they perceive as vulnerable. The high rates of poverty and hardship in tribal communities; historical trauma and culture loss; homelessness and runaway youth; high rates of involvement with child welfare systems, including entry into the foster care system; exposure to violence in the home or community; drug and alcohol abuse; and low levels of law enforcement all add up to a community rich in targets for traffickers. Imus-Nahsonhoya says that she learned most of what she knows about trafficking from survivors of this degrading and often dangerous life. But she never saw a dime of that. For Valaura Imus-Nahsonhoya, one key to preventing sex trafficking in the Native community is for tribal leaders to pass new laws.
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A report found 94 per cent of Native American women living in Seattle say they have been raped or coerced into sex at least once in their lifetime. The damning new report — from the Urban Indian Health Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention — is believed to be one of the first to examine the experience of native women living in an urban environment instead of on reservations. Out of the women surveyed, 94 per cent said they had been raped or forced to have sex and 69 per cent claimed they experienced street harassment. Urban Indian Health Institute Director Abigail Echo-Hawk discovered the results of the survey in in the bottom drawer of a file cabinet in the corner of her office. Nevertheless, she said she thinks it is time the community publicly addresses the high rate of abuse and homelessness. Esther Lucero, CEO of Seattle Indian Health Board — the non-profit organisation which oversees the Urban Indian Health Institute — said the reasons for such high rates of abuse and lack of accountability are multifaceted and complex. She said they partly stem from the historical trauma of colonialism.
In the United States , Native American women are more than 2. In most cases the FBI investigates the crime and the office of the United States Attorney decides whether to prosecute as opposed to tribal law enforcement. Recognizing sovereignty and affording Native tribes the right to prosecute non-Natives who commit crimes against Native Americans on reservations has been called an extremely important first step in a series of legal changes that would affect how these violations are responded to and viewed at the community, state, and federal level. Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion , acts to traffic a person or acts directed against a person's sexuality , regardless of the relationship to the victim. Sexual violence consists in a purposeful action of which the intention is often diminish human dignity of the victim s and to inflict severe humiliation on them. In the case where others are forced to watch acts of sexual violence, such acts aim at intimidating the larger community. Rape in the United States is defined by the Department of Justice as "Penetration, no matter how slight, of the anus or vagina with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.